Myelolipoma in the mediastinum is an extremely rare entity. In this report, we present the case of a 79-year-old asymptomatic man who had three bilateral paravertebral mediastinal tumors. The three tumors were resected simultaneously using bilateral three-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). There has been no evidence of recurrence within four years after the operation. Multiple bilateral mediastinal myelolipomas are extremely rare. There are no reports in the English literature of multiple bilateral thoracic myelolipomas that were resected simultaneously using bilateral VATS. We also present characteristic features of myelolipomas, which are helpful for diagnosis.